1. Medicinal Plant Species Traded in High Volumes (≥ 100 MT/year):
Of the 960 traded medicinal plant species, 178 species are consumed in volumes exceeding 100 MT per year, with their consolidated consumption accounting for about 80% of the total industrial demand of all botanicals in the country. Analysis of these 178 species by their major sources of supply reveals that 21 species (12%) are obtained from temperate forests, 70 species (40%) are obtained from tropical forests, 36 species (20%) are obtained largely or wholly from cultivations/plantations, 46 species (25%) are obtained largely from road sides and other degraded land use elements and the remaining 5 species (3%) are imported from nother countries.
2. Medicinal Plant Species in High Trade sourced from Tropical Forests*
Acacia catechu (Katha), Acacia nilotica (Babool), Acacia sinuata (Shikakai), Aegle marmelos (Bael), Albizzia amara (Cheroola), Alstonia scholaris (Saptaparni), Anogeissus latifolia (Dhawada), Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari), Baliospermum montanum (Dantimool), Bombax ceiba (Simal), Boswellia serrata (Salai guggul), Buchnania lanzan (Chironji), Butea monosperma (Tesu phool), Careya arborea (Vaai kumbha), Cassia fistula (Amaltas), Celastrus paniculatus (Malkangani), Chlorophytum tuberosum (Safed musali), Cinnamomum sulphuratum (Dalchini), Clerodendrum phlomides (Arnimool), Coscinium fenestratum(Maramanjal), Cyclea peltata (Paadu kizhangu), Decalepis hamiltonii (Magali), Desmodium gangeticum (Salparni), Embelia tsjerium-cottam (Vaividang),Emblica officinalis (Amla), Garcinia indica (Kokam), Gardenia resinifera (Dikamali), Gmelina arborea (Gambar Chhal), Gymnema sylvestre (Gudmar), Helicteres isora (Marod phali), Holarrhena pubescens (Kutja), Holoptelea integrifolia (Aavithali), Holostemma ada-kodien (Jeevanti), Ipomoea mauritiana (Palmudhukkan kizhangu), Ixoracoccinea (Thechippoovu), Lannea coromandelica (Jhinganjingini), Litsea glutinosa (Maida chhal), Lobelia nicotianaefolia (Lobelia leaves), Madhuca indica (Madhuka), Messua ferrea (Nagakesar), Mimusops elengi (Bakul), Morinda pubescens(Manjanathi), Mucuna puriens (Kaunch beej), Nilgirianthus ciliatus (Kurinji), Operculina turpethum (Nishoth), Oroxylum indicum (Tetu chhal), Premna serratifolia (Arnimool), Pterocarpus marsupium (Vijaysaar), Pterocarpus santalinus(Rakta chandan), Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha), Rubia cordifolia (Manjishtha), Santalum album (Chandan), Sapindus mukorossi (Reetha), Saraca asoca (Ashoka Chhal), Schrebera swietenioides (Ghanti phool), Semecarpus anacardium (Balave), Shorea robusta (Raal), Smilax glabra (Chopchini), Soymida febrifuga (Rohan), Sterculia urens (Karaya), Stereospermum chelonoides (Patala), Strychnos nux-vomica (Kuchla), Strychnos potatorum (Nirmali), Symplocos racemosus (Lodh pathani), Terminalia arjuna (Arjan), Terminalia bellirica (Behra), Terminalia chebula (Harda), Vateria indica (Manda dhoopa), Wrightia tinctoria (Inderjau), Ziziphus xylocarpus (Ghonta phala) *Commiphora wightii (guggul) and Aquilaria agallocha (agar), largely sourced through imports at present, are also native tropical species and need special management focus. Whereas all the above-mentioned 93 medicinal plant species sourced from forests (including ‘guggul’ and ‘agar’) need appropriate attention, the temperate and alpine herbs and the tropical trees form the most vulnerable group of species that needs immediate management focus.
As regards the following 36 species sourced wholly or largely from cultivation, it needs to be appreciated that cultivation of these species has already stabilised and got firmly incorporated into the local agricultural systems and does not need any promotional incentives. Instead, the focus in relation to these species would need to be on developing better cultivars/ varieties and making their germplasm available to the growers in adequate quantities for enhancing their income.
36 Medicinal Plant Species in High Trade sourced largely from Cultivation
Abelmoschus moschatus (Muskdana), Acorus calamus (Bach), Adhatoda zeylanica (Adusa), Aloe barbedensis (Kumari), Alpinia calcarata (Chittartha), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Caesalpinia sappan (Pathimugam), Cassia angustifolia (Sonamukhi), Catharanthus roseus (Sadabahar), Cichorium intybus (Kasani), Croton tiglium (Jamalghota), Curcuma angustifolia (Tikhur), Curcuma zerumbet (Kachur), Ficus benghalensis (Vada Chhal), Ficus religiosa (Arali chakkiLakh Pippal), Gloriosa superba (Kalihari), Indigofera tinctoria (NiliAkika), Inula racemosa (Pushkarmool), Jatropha curcas (Nepalam seed), Kaempferia galanga (Kacholumra), Lawsonia inermis (Henna), Lepidium sativum (HalimKurassani), Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil), Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulasi), Piper longum (Pippali), Plantago ovata (Isabgol), Plectranthus barbatus (Gandhira), Pongamia pinnata (Karanj), Prunus armeniaca (Chuli), Saussurea costus (Kuth), Silybum marianum (Milk thistle), Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba), Trachyspermum ammi (Ajwain), Vitex negundo (Neergundi), Withania somnifera (Ashvagandha), Ziziphus jujuba (Ber) Raw material pertaining to the following five species is largely obtained through imports. Two of these five species, namely Aquilaria agallocha (Agar) and Commiphora wightii (Guggual), do occur in tropical India, but their wild populations are able to meet only a fraction of the total domestic requirement. Efforts need to be taken up to build up wild populations of these two species.
5 Medicinal Plant Species in High Trade sourced largely through Imports
Aquilaria agallocha (Agar), Commiphora wightii (Guggual), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Mulethi), Piper chaba (GajpippalChavak) and Quercus infectoria (Majuphal)
The following 46 species are found growing wild in abundance in wastelands including farm bunds, fallow lands, roadsides, shrubberies, etc. and their domestic supplies are largely obtained from wastelands. As such, these species may not require immediate management focus as far as their wild populations are concerned. Some of these species may, however, need cultivation to conform to quality standards, especially in cases where more than one equivalent species are freely traded as one botanical.
46 Medicinal Plant Species in High Trade sourced mainly from Wastelands, etc.
Abrus precatorius (Gunja), Achyranthes aspera (Upmarga), Aerva lanata (Cheroola), Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh), Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi), Boerhavia diffusa (Punarnava), Cardiospermum halicacabum (Mudakkatham), Cassia absus (Chaksoo), Cassia tora (Chakoda beeja), Centella asiatica (Brahmi booti), Centratherum anthelminticum (Kali zeeri), Citrullus colocynthis (Indrayan), Convolvulus microphyllus (Shankhapushpi), Curculigo orchioides (Kali musli), Cynodon dactylon (Durva), Cyperus esculentus (Musta), Cyperus rotundus (Nagar motha), Datura metel (Dhatura), Eclipta prostrata (Bhringraj), Fumaria indica (Shatara), Hedyotis corymbosa (Pitpapra), Hemidesmus indicus (Anatmool), Hygrophylla schulli (Tal makhana), Ipomoea nil (Kaladana), Merremia tridentata (Prasarani), Ocimum americanum (Ban tulsi), Peganum harmala (Harmal), Phyllanthus amarus (Bhumiamla), Pluchea lanceolata (Rasna), Plambago zeylanica (Chitrak), Pseudarthia viscida (Moovila), Psoralea corylifolia (Bawachi), Sida rhombifolia (Bala), Sisymbrium irio (Khubkalan), Solanum anguivi (Katheli badi), Solanum nigrum (Makoi), Solanum virginianum (Kateli), Sphaeranthus indicus (Gorakh mundi), Tephrosia purpurea (Sarpankha), Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy),
Tragia involucrata (Kodithoova), Tribulus terrestris (Gokshura), Trichosanthes cucumerina (Patol panchang), Vetiveria zizanioides (Lavancha), Withania coagulens (Panir dodi), Woodfordia fruticosa (Dhatki).
This list of 178 medicinal plant species in high volume trade would need to be suitably modified in view of the region-specific
‘alternate’ or ‘equivalent’ species that are xvi harvested and freely traded as source of popular raw drugs like ‘bala’, ‘gokhru’, etc. Footnotes on the use of such alternate or equivalent species have been added to the list in the main publication. Similarly, some species that might have been left out of the survey due to limitations of the sampling size might need to be included in this list of species in high volume trade.